Beginning of the decline of the Mughal realm can be traced to the solid rule the Aurangzeb.

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Aurangzeb inherited a large empire, however he adopted a plan of prolonging it further to the farthest geographical borders in the south at the an excellent expense that men and also materials.


Political Cause

In reality, the existing means of communication and also the economic and also political structure of the country made it an overwhelming to create a stable central administration over all parts of the country.

Aurangzeb’s objective of unifying the entire country under one central political authority was, though justifiable in theory, not simple in practice.

Aurangzeb’s futile but arduous campaign versus the Marathas prolonged over many years; the drained the sources of his Empire and ruined the trade and also industry of the Deccan.

Aurangzeb’s absence from the north for over 25 years and his fail to subdue the Marathas led to deterioration in administration; this undermined the prestige of the Empire and also its army.

In the 18th century, Maratha’s expansion in the north weakened central authority quiet further.

Alliance through the Rajput rajas v the consequent army support was one of the key pillars that Mughal toughness in the past, however Aurangzeb"s dispute with few of the Rajput states likewise had major consequences.

Aurangzeb himself had in the start adhered to the Rajput alliance by increasing Jaswant sink of Kamer and Jai sink of Amber come the highest of ranks. Yet his short-sighted attempt later on to minimize the toughness of the Rajput rajas and extend the royal sway over their lands caused the withdrawal of their commitment from the Mughal throne.

The toughness of Aurangzeb’s administration was tested at its an extremely nerve center roughly Delhi by Satnam, the Jat, and the Sikh uprisings. Every one of them to be to a significant extent the result of the oppression of the Mughal revenue officials over the peasantry.

They showed that the peasantry to be deeply dissatisfied through feudal be oppressive by Zamindars, nobles, and also the state.

Religious Cause

Aurangzeb"s spiritual orthodoxy and also his policy towards the Hindu rulers seriously damaged the stability of the Mughal Empire.

The Mughal state in the days of Akbar, Jahangir, and Shahjahan was basically a secular state. Its stability was basically founded top top the policy of noninterference with the religious beliefs and customs of the people, promoting of friendly relations in between Hindus and also Muslims.

Aurangzeb made an attempt to reverse the secular plan by imposing the jizyah (tax imposed on non-Muslim people), destroying countless of the Hindu holy places in the north, and also putting details restrictions on the Hindus.

The jizyah to be abolished in ~ a few years that Aurangzeb’s death. Amicable connections with the Rajput and other Hindu nobles and chiefs were quickly restored.

Both the Hindu and the Muslim nobles, zamindars, and also chiefs ruthlessly oppressed and also exploited the common civilization irrespective of their religion.

Wars of succession and civil Wars

Aurangzeb left the empire with countless problems unsolved, the case was additional worsened through the ruinous wars of succession, which followed his death.

In the lack of any type of fixed dominion of succession, the Mughal dynasty was constantly plagued ~ the fatality of a king by a civil war in between the princes.

The battles of succession became very fierce and also destructive during the 18th century and resulted in great loss that life and property. Countless trained soldiers and also hundreds of qualified military commanders and efficient and tried officials to be killed. Moreover, this civil battles loosened the bureaucratic fabric the the Empire.

Aurangzeb was neither weak no one degenerate. That possessed great ability and also capacity because that work. That was totally free of vices common among kings and lived a straightforward and austere life.

Aurangzeb undermined the an excellent empire that his forefathers not because he lacked character or capacity but since he lacked political, social, and economic insight. That was not his personality, yet his plans that were the end of joint.

The weak of the king can have been successfully overcome and also covered increase by an alert, efficient, and also loyal nobility. Yet the personality of the the aristocracy had also deteriorated. Many nobles live extravagantly and also beyond their means. Plenty of of them ended up being ease-loving and also fond of too much luxury.

Many the the majesties neglected even the arts of fighting.

Earlier, plenty of able persons indigenous the lower classes had been maybe to climb to the ranking of nobility, for this reason infusing fresh blood right into it. Later, the existing households of nobles began to monopolies all offices, barring the method to fresh comers.

Not all the nobles, however, negative become weak and inefficient. A huge number of energetic and able officials and also brave and brilliant military leaders came into prominence during the 18th century, yet most of them walk not benefit the Empire because they offered their talent to encourage their very own interests and to fight each various other rather 보다 to serve the state and also society.

The significant weakness that the Mughal nobility during the 18th century lay, no in the decline in the average capability of the noble or their ethical decay, but in their selfishness and also lack of devotion come the state and this, in turn, provided birth come corruption in administration and common bickering.

In order to boost emperors’ power, prestige, and also income, the nobles developed groups and also factions against each other and even versus the king. In their battle for power, castle took recourse to force, fraud, and treachery.

The common quarrels tired the Empire, affected its cohesion, resulted in its dismemberment, and, in the end, make it an easy prey to international conquerors.

A basic cause of the downfall that the Mughal realm was the it could no longer fulfill the minimum requirements of the population.

The condition of the Indian peasant slowly worsened during the 17th and also 18th centuries. Nobles made hefty demands on the peasants and also cruelly oppressed them, frequently in violation of official regulations.

Many ruined peasants created roving bands the robbers and also adventurers, frequently under the leadership of the zamindars, and also thus undermined law and order and also the efficiency of the Mughal administration.

During the 18th century, the Mughal army lacked discipline and also fighting morale. Absence of finance make it difficult to maintain a huge number that army. That is soldiers and also officers were no paid for numerous months, and, because they were mere mercenaries, they to be constantly disaffected and often verged top top a mutiny.

The polite wars brought about the fatality of numerous brilliant commanders and brave and experienced solders. Thus, the army, the can be fried sanction of an empire, and also the pride of the an excellent Mughals, was so weakened the it could no much longer curb the ambitious chiefs and nobles or defend the empire from foreign aggression.

Foreign Invasion

A series of foreign invasions affected Mughal Empire an extremely badly. Assaults by Nadir Shah and Ahmad shaman Abdali, which to be themselves the consequences of the weakness of the Empire, drained the realm of its wealth, destroyed its trade and also industry in the North, and nearly destroyed its military power.

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The introduction of the British difficulty took far the critical hope that the rebirth of the crisis-ridden Empire.