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assignments --> Unit 3 part 4

Halogens

change Metals

groups with metalloids

Halogens

Characteristics of group 17 of the regular table.

You are watching: Which metalloids would have chemical properties similar to bromine

· recognize halogens.

· explain physical and also chemical nature of halogens.

· perform some offers of halogens.

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You’ve more than likely seen halogen lights favor the persons pictured here. Friend may even have halogen lights in her home. If friend do, girlfriend may have noticed that they obtain really hot and give turn off a most light for your size. A halogen light differs from a consistent incandescent light pear in having a tiny amount the halogen gas inside the bulb. The gas combine chemically with the metal in the filament, and this extends the life of the filament. It allows the desk lamp to obtain hotter and also give off an ext light than a regular incandescent irradiate without burning the end quickly. What is halogen gas, and also whichelementsare halogens? In this article, you’ll discover out.  

Meet the Halogens

Halogensare very reactive nonmetallicelementsin team 17 that the periodic table. As you can see in the periodic table displayed in theFigurebelow, the halogens incorporate theelementsfluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and also astatine (At). All of them are relatively common on planet except because that astatine. Astatine is radioactive and also rapidly decays come other, more stable elements. Together a result, it is just one of the the very least common aspects on Earth.

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Q:Based ~ above their position in the routine table indigenous theFigureabove, how plenty of valenceelectronsdo friend think halogens have?

A:The number of valenceelectronsstarts at one for elements in team 1. It then boosts by one native left to right across each period (row) of the periodic table for teams 1–2 and also 13–18. Therefore, halogens have actually seven valence electrons.

Chemical nature of Halogens

The halogens are among the many reactive of every elements, although reactivity decreases from the optimal to the bottom that the halogen group. Since all halogens have seven valenceelectrons, they space “eager” to gain one much more electron. Law so gives them a complete outerenergy level, which is the many stable setup of electrons. Halogens often integrate with alkalimetalsin group 1 the the regular table. Alkali metals have actually just one valence electron, which they are equally “eager” come donate. Reactions including halogens, especially halogens close to the height of the group, might be explosive. You have the right to see some instances in the video clip at the URL below. (Warning:Don’t shot any of these reactions at home!)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mY7o28-l_WU(1:00)

Physical properties of Halogens

The halogen team is quite diverse. It includes elements that occur in three differentstates of matterat roomtemperature. Fluorine and also chlorine aregases, bromine is a liquid, and also iodine and also astatine aresolids. Halogens likewise varyincolor, together you deserve to see in theFigurebelow. Fluorine and chlorine are green, bromine is red, and also iodine and astatine are practically black. Like other nonmetals, halogens cannot conduct electrical power orheat. Contrasted with most other elements, halogens have relatively lowmeltingandboilingpoints. You deserve to watch a laboratory demonstration of the melting and boiling points of halogens at this URL:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yP0U5rGWqdg.

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Uses the Halogens

Most halogens have actually a range of important uses. A couple of are described in theTablebelow.

A few Uses that Halogens

Halogen

Use

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Fluorine helps stop tooth decay, so that is included to toothpaste as the compound sodium fluoride. You can learn how it protects this at this URL:http://www.animated-teeth.com/tooth_decay/t4_tooth_decay_fluoride.htm.

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Chlorine is the active ingredient in family bleach. It gets rid of stains indigenous clothes. That can also be provided to disinfect countertops and also other surfaces.

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Bromine is supplied to purifywaterin swim pools and hot tubs. It reacts with bacteria and also other germs and renders them harmless.

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Iodine is included to alcohol and used as an antiseptic. It reacts v germs ~ above cuts and wounds. Little amounts the iodine are likewise needed for good health. In the U.S., iodine is added to table salt to protect against iodine deficiencies. Walk the salt you usage contain iodine?

Q:Can you relate few of these uses of halogens to the properties of these elements?

A:The capacity of halogens to death germs and bleach clothes relates come their very reactive nature.

Summary

· Halogens are highly reactive nonmetal aspects in group 17 of the routine table.

· Halogens includesolids,liquids, andgasesat roomtemperature, and also they vary incolor.

· Halogens are among the most reactive of all elements. They have actually seven valence electrons, so they are very “eager” to gain one electron to have actually a complete outerenergy level.

· Halogens have a variety of essential uses, such as staying clear of tooth decay and also killing germs.

Explore More

TheTablebelowgives themeltingandboilingpoints that halogens. Produce a graph through the data, and also then define in native the patterns that you watch in your graph.

MeltingandBoilingPoints of Halogens

Halogen

Melting suggest (°C)

Boiling allude (°C)

Fluorine

-220

-188

Chlorine

-101

-35

Bromine

-7

58

Iodine

114

184

Astatine

302

337

Review

1. What are halogens?

2. Why are halogens very reactive?

3. Explain the physical properties the halogens.

4. Why is chlorine included to swim poolwater?

Transition Metals

Characteristics of teams 3 - 12 the the routine table.

· recognize transitionmetals.

· list properties that transitionmetals.

· explain thelanthanides and also actinides.

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What do every one of the objects pictured above have in common? every one of them space made totally or primarily of copper. Copper has an amazing selection of uses, including cooking pots, pipes pipes, roofing tiles, jewelry,musical instruments, and also electric wires. Copper is a good choice for these and many other objects since of the properties. It have the right to be developed into wires and flat sheets, it’s a an excellent conductor ofheatand electricity, it’s hard and also strong, and it doesn’t corrode easily. In all these ways, copper is a typical shift metal.

What room TransitionMetals?

Transition metalsare every theelementsin teams 3–12 that the periodic table. In the regular table pictured inFigurebelow, they room theelementsshaded yellow, pink, and also purple. The change metals do up about 60 percent of all known elements. In enhancement to copper (Cu), fine known examples of change metals incorporate iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), silver- (Ag), and also gold (Au) (Copper (Cu) is pictured in its miscellaneous applications in the opening image). You have the right to explore certain transition steels with the interactive regular table in ~ this URL:http://www.ptable.com/.

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Q:Transition metals have been called the most usual of every metals. What carry out you think this means?

A:Unlike some various other metals, change metals have the properties that define the metals class. They are excellent conductors the electricity, for example, and also they additionally have luster, malleability, and also ductility. You have the right to read more about these properties of transition metals below.

Properties of shift Metals

Transition steels are premium conductors ofheatas well as electricity. They space malleable, which means they can be shaped right into sheets, and ductile, which way they deserve to be shaped into wires. They have highmeltingandboilingpoints, and also all aresolidsat roomtemperature, except for mercury (Hg), which is a liquid. Transition metals are also high in thickness and very hard. Most of them room white or silvery incolor, and they are generally lustrous, or shiny. Thecompoundsthat change metals form with otherelementsare often an extremely colorful. You can see several instances in theFigurebelow.

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Some nature of change metals collection them apart from various other metals. Compared with the alkali steels in group 1 and also the alkaline earth metals in group 2, the transition metals room much less reactive. Castle don’t react quickly withwateror oxygen, which defines why castle resistcorrosion.

Other properties of the transition metals room unique. They room the only elements that may useelectronsin the beside highest—as well together the highest—energy levelas valence electrons. Valence electrons room the electrons that type bonds through other aspects incompoundsand that normally determine the properties of elements. Transition metals are unusual in having actually very comparable properties even with various numbers that valence electrons. The change metals also include the only elements that produce a magnetic field. 3 of them have this property: steel (Fe), cobalt (Co), and nickel (Ni).

Q:How is the number of valenceelectronstypically concerned the properties of elements?

A:The variety of valenceelectronsusually determines just how reactive aspects are and the means in which they reaction with other elements.

Those elements Down Under

Transition metals incorporate the facets that are most often placed listed below the regular table (the pink- and purple-shaded facets in theFigureabove). Those the follow lanthanum (La) are referred to as lanthanides. They are all fairly reactive for shift metals. Those the follow actinium (Ac) are referred to as actinides. They space all radioactive. This means that they are unstable, for this reason they decay into different, an ext stable elements. Countless of the actinides do not take place in nature yet are make inlaboratories.

Summary

· transition metals are all the aspects in teams 3–12 that the periodic table. An ext than half of all facets are transition metals.

· shift metals are typical metals, with properties such as a superior ability to conduct electricity andheat. They additionally have the metallic nature of luster, malleability, and ductility. In addition, shift metals have highmeltingandboilingpoints and also high density.

· Thelanthanides and actinidesare the change metals that space usually placed below the main component of the regular table. Lanthanides are relatively reactive for transition metals, and actinides space radioactive.

Explore More

At the following URL, click on any kind of two the the shift metals and also read about their properties,atomic structure, discovery, and uses. Then compose a paragraph comparing and contrasting the 2 elements.

http://www.chemicalelements.com/groups/transition.html

Review

1. What are transition metals?

2. Define properties of transition metals.

3. Exactly how do change metals different from steels in teams 1 and 2? how are they different from all other elements?

4. Determine thelanthanides and also actinides.

Groups v Metalloids

Characteristics of groups 13 - 16 of the regular table.

· Identifyelementsin teams 13–16 that the periodic table.

· perform properties the a metalloid from every of these groups.

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This image represents a famous ancient Egyptian named Tutankhamen. Do you see his hefty eyeliner? Most likely the eyeliner was made the a mineral comprise antimony. This metalloid was commonly used for makeup by Egyptians between four and also five thousand year ago. This day we understand that antimony is toxic, although Tutankhamen more than likely didn’t know that. Antimony is discovered in team 15 the the routine table. Team 15 is one of 4 groups that the regular table the containmetalloids.  

Groups 13–16

Groups 13–16 the the regular table (orange in theFigurebelow) room the only teams that containelementsclassified asmetalloids. Unlike other groups of the routine table, i beg your pardon contain elements in simply one class, groups 13–16 contain facets in at the very least two various classes. In enhancement to metalloids, they also containmetals, nonmetals, or both. Groups 13–16 fall in between the transition metals (in groups 3–12) and also the nonmetals calledhalogens(in team 17).

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What AreMetalloids?

Metalloidsare the smallest class ofelements, containing just six members: boron (B), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), arsenic (As), antimony (Sb), and tellurium (Te). Metalloids have some properties ofmetals(elements that deserve to conduct electricity) and also some properties of nonmetals (elements the cannot conduct electricity). For example, most metalloids have the right to conduct electricity, however not and also metals. Metalloids also tend to be shiny favor metals, yet brittle like nonmetals. Chemically, metalloids might behave like metals or nonmetals, depending upon their number of valenceelectrons. You have the right to learn more about details metalloids by clicking the element symbols in the routine table in ~ this URL:http://www.chemicool.com/.

Q:Why go the chemical behavior of an element depend top top its number of valenceelectrons?

A:Valenceelectronsare the electrons in one atom’s outerenergy levelthat may be affiliated inchemical reactionswith otheratoms.

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Group 13: Boron Group

Group 13 of the regular table is additionally called the boron group since boron (B) is the first element at the top of the team (seeFigurebelow). Boron is also the just metalloid in this group. The other four elements in the group—aluminum (Al), gallium (Ga), indium (In), and also thallium (Tl)—are allmetals. Group 13 aspects have three valence electrons and also are relatively reactive. All of them aresolidsat roomtemperature.