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Nile River and the Desert

In ancient times, the Egyptians called the desert the "red land", distinguishing it native the flood plain roughly the Nile River, dubbed the "black land". This colours reflect the reality that the desert sands have actually a reddish hue and also the land approximately the Nile rotate black once the annual flood waters receded.

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The desert and the Nile River emerged millions the years ago when the old sea the covered many of Europe and also northern Africa (45 million years ago) shifted, forming the Mediterranean Sea basin. This taken place when the earth"s bowl moved, developing the Himalayas and the Alps. Over countless years, the Nile River evolved into its present shape, surrounded by the Eastern and Western deserts.

The top Nile is divided into 3 tributaries: the White Nile, the Blue Nile and also the Atbara River. The White Nile operation from Lake Victoria, Lake Edward and also Lake George, and also the Blue Nile originates in the Ethiopian mountains. The Atbara flow flows native the Ethiopian highlands and also meets the an unified White Nile and also Blue Nile just north the Khartoum. Before the flow enters the Mediterranean Sea, that divides into 4 smaller tributaries in the delta region.

The northern an ar of Egypt is bounded by two deserts, the like the mountain Eastern, or Arabian, Desert and the sandy Western, or Libyan, Desert. Nomadic tribes continue to roam these desert regions as they have done because that centuries, avoiding at oases to replenish your water supplies.

Around 5000 B.C., when the climate became much more arid, nomadic groups retreated come the Nile Valley, producing the very first urban settlements. These communities were concentrated in the North and also the South. As a result, Egypt ended up being known together the "Double Land" or the "Two Lands" the Upper and Lower Egypt.

The 2 lands were united in 3100 B.C. Through the legendary King Menes. He created a new administrative city whereby the Nile flow branches out into the delta. In old times that was called "White Walls" or Mennefer; the Greeks dubbed it Memphis. It remained the funding of Egypt because that over 3,500 years. Although there is no historical proof the King Menes existed, the renowned Narmer palette that depicts two images of a king, one attract the crown of top Egypt and the various other the crown of reduced Egypt, is believed to depict King Menes. King Menes and also King Narmer may have been the very same person, the an initial king of Egypt.

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Dualities, such as desert and river valley, Upper and Lower Egypt, life and also death, were an essential organizing principle of the Egyptian"s civilization view.