The flow of energy through any ecosystem starts through the permanent of sunshine by plants and also other autotrophic organisms. In this means the tree accumulates energy and this energy is dubbed primary production. The rate at i m sorry this energy accumulates is referred to as primary productivity. The full energy gathered is gross major production, however, because plants use several of this energy themselves, that is not all available for the food web. The difference between what is gathered and what is obtainable for the food net is called net primary production expressed in
kilocalories or grams m-2 y-1 or kcal or g/m2/y. This is measured by sequentially measuring expansion of the biomass over time by noting the plants somehow, or measuring a full at the end of the growing season. Additionally you deserve to measure oxygen manufacturing or CO2 usage both of which same grams C produced. (experiment possiblities!)
In general, swamps and also marshes have actually the greatest primary manufacturing of all the world"s ecosystems. Primary production of all wetland types varies native 600-2000 gC/m2/y.
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In general, the "openness" that a wetland come hydrological fluxes is most likely one the the many important factors of main productivity. Therefore wetlands that room stagnant room less abundant than those that flow or are open up to flooding rivers. This renders sense because a flow-through device constantly gets an ext nutrients. This isn"t 100% though due to the fact that wetlands acquire most the their nutrient from recycling fairly than from the outside. This is what permits them all to be relatively productive.
These have tendency to it is in the most abundant ecosystems in the world. Approximates of the southerly usmam.org plain of the U.S. Have topped 8000 gC/m2/y v the combined efforts of wetland grass, mud algae, and also phytoplankton in the tidal creeks. The southern marshes do better than the northern ones partly due to the fact that of the better influx the solar energy and longer farming season, and partly because of the nutrient well-off sediments carried by rivers in that region.
Low or intertidal marshes are an ext productive than high marshes due to the fact that of the enhanced exposure to tidal flow.
Belowground production is high. Under unfavorable soil conditions, plants seem to put much more energy into root production. (experiment possibility!)
Generally, plant production depends ~ above light, water, nutrients, and also toxins. If girlfriend look at a salt marsh the has full sun, limitless water, and the sedimentary soil is usually rich in nutrient so you"d suppose uniformly high production. The doesn"t happen:
1. Productivity decreases northward as the growing season shortens.
2. Water looks abundant but since it"s braided the plants tend to lose water and also so must expend energy in stimulate to take it it up. It"s been shown that plant growth is significantly inhibited through salt (experiment possibility!)
3. The less oxygen the floor contains, the worse the tree do also if they"re adjusted to survive that, and also salt wetland sediments have tendency to be low in oxygen.
Tidal Freshwater Marshes
Productivity is normally high here (1000-3000 g/m2/y) yet variable, escape on:
1. Varieties of plants present. Uneven salt marshes, freshwater tidal marshes have actually a vast diversity that plants and so performance depends partly on just how well the details speusmam.orges of plant grows.
2. Tidal energy. Relocating water normally supports production.
3. Floor nutrients, grazing, and also toxins all have an effect.
Generally efficiency is highest in riverine mangroves and also lowest for dwarf mangroves (1100-5400 g/m2/y) here again, the vital seems to it is in the increased nutrients provided by the tide.
Productivity in this is high, increase of 1000 g/m2/y. This is lower than what we"ve looked at so far, but still greater than that of intensely cultivated farm crops. It"s variable, again due to the fact that of the range of tree that might be involved. There"s a solid relationship between above ground biomass and also summer temperature so southerly marshes are an ext productive than those in the north.
In these, lot of the manufacturing is below ground and also mosses, espeusmam.orgally Sphagnum , account because that 1/3-1/2 the complete production.
These wetlands are far less productive and other wetlands and are generally less abundant than terrestrial ecosystems in the same regions (250-500 g/m2/y)
As shown in the figure, the highest possible productivity in cypress swamps seems to happen when conditions are neither also wet nor as well dry and also there is seasonal pulsing. The an ext water that flows through, the better. Even so, these room less abundant than marshes (500-1800 g/m2/y).
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(from Mitch and Gosselink, 1993)
Remember that these room wetlands occurring along the edge of lakes and also rivers. They are generally an ext productive (600-1400 g/m2/y) 보다 their adjacent uplands due to:
1. Flooding offers adequate water supplies
2. Nutrients space supplied and also favorable change of soil chemistry outcomes from the routine overbank flooding (nitrification, sulfate reduction, nutrient mineralization--all these make the nutrients more available to the plants)
3. Flowing water offers a more oxygenated source zone than if the water to be stagnant. The "flushing" carries away waste products.