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Date:492 BCE - 449 ...(Show more)Location:Greece...(Show more)Participants:AthensBoeotian LeagueDelian Leagueancient Greek civilizationIoniaPersiaScythianSpartaTegeaThespiae...(Show more)Major Events:Battle of ArtemisiumBattle that MarathonBattle the PlataeaBattle that SalamisBattle that Thermopylae...(Show more)Key People:Cambyses IICimonCyrus the GreatDarius IThemistocles...(Show more)

Greco-Persian Wars, also called Persian Wars, (492–449 bce), collection of wars combated by Greek states and Persia end a duration of almost fifty percent a century. The fighting was many intense during two invasions that Persia launched against mainland Greece in between 490 and 479. Although the Persian realm was at the peak of that strength, the collective defense an installed by the Greeks overcame seemingly impossible odds and also even succeeded in liberating Greek city-states ~ above the fringe of Persia itself. The Greek triumph ensured the survive of Greek society and politics structures lengthy after the death of the Persian empire.

Establishment and also expansion that the Achaemenian empire (559–500 bce)

In 559 bce the Persian king Cyrus II started the Achaemenian dynasty, and also he would invest the remainder of his life extending his rule, which ultimately reached indigenous the Indus river valley to the Aegean Sea. After ~ the Persians beat Croesus of Lydia around 546, the small Greek says on the asian coast were reduced piecemeal, and also Sparta, the strongest state on the Greek mainland, walk nothing an ext than lodge diplomatic protests.


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Darius, that reigned native 522 come 486, consolidated and also extended the Persian empire. From his capital, far inland at Susa, the royal roadways led to about 20 provinces, called satrapies, which to be governed through satraps possessing complete military and also civil powers. The overcame peoples owed tribute and also military service to the king. So long as castle fulfilled their obligations, they to be generously treated—permitted to practice their own religion and manage their inner affairs—but disobedience was harshly punished by massacre or deportation. The imperial military consisted the archers and sparabra (“shield bearers”), a form of irradiate infantry armed with a spear and wicker shield; Median and Persian cavalry; and also the ideal troops the the topic peoples. The navy was drawn from the Greek claims of Asia Minor and also from Phoenicia, Cyprus, and also Egypt. Supreme authority in war and peace to be vested in the Persian monarch, whose absolute powers to be tempered only by the custom of consulting his Persian officials. Darius was explained as “the an excellent king, king the kings, king of the nations possessing every kinds the peoples, king of this great earth far and wide.” together the vicegerent that the Persian god, Ahura Mazdā, Darius laid case to world rule.


Darius i seated prior to two incense burners, information of a bas-relief the the phibìc courtyard in the Treasury that Persepolis, so late 6th–early fifth century bce; in the archaeological Museum, Tehrān.

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In 514 Darius ready to dominate Europe. Having made a enlightenment by sea of Greece and Scythia, he decided to strike Scythia first and instructed a Samian engineer to build a pontoon bridge across the Bosporus. The imperial army overran eastern Thrace and also crossed the Danube top top a pontoon bridge that was created by Greek contingents in ~ the Persian navy. The Persians then advanced far right into what is currently Ukraine, more than likely in 513. The Scythians retreated till Darius outran his present of supply and then harassed his pressures when that turned back. The Greek commanders in the Persian navy, although request by the Scythians to reduced the bridge over the Danube, stayed loyal to Darius, however some Greek states bordering the Bosporus and also the Hellespont climbed in rebellion at the news of his discomfiture. This operations persuaded Darius the a solid bridgehead in Europe to be necessary. His generals punished the Greek rebels, developed a satrapy in southerly Thrace that cut off the Scythians from their Spartan allies, and also received the entry of the king the Macedonia. Meanwhile, the Persian navy lessened Lemnos and also Imbros (Gökçeada), and a Persian pressure was all set in 500 to assault Naxos, the strongest island in the Cyclades. This exploration was most likely intended come pave the way for an invasion of Greece.