The name “semiconductor” is commonly known, however what room semiconductors?Semiconductors possess specific electrical properties. A substance the conducts electricity is referred to as a conductor, and a substance the does no conduct electrical energy is called an insulator. Semiconductors room substances through properties somewhere between them.Electrical properties have the right to be shown by resistivity. Conductors such as gold, silver and copper have actually low resistance and also conduct electricity easily. Insulators such as rubber, glass and ceramics have actually high resistance and also are challenging for electrical energy to happen through. Semiconductors have properties somewhere in between these two. Your resistivity might change according come the temperature because that example. In ~ a low temperature, virtually no electrical energy passes with them. Yet when the temperature rises, electrical energy passes v them easily.Semiconductors containing practically no impurities conduct nearly no electricity. However when some aspects are added to the semiconductors, electrical energy passes v them easily.Semiconductors comprising a solitary element are called elemental semiconductors, consisting of the famous semiconductor product Silicon. Top top the other hand, semiconductors made up of 2 or much more compounds are referred to as compound semiconductors, and also are supplied in semiconductor lasers, light-emitting diodes, etc.

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Energy Band

An atom is consist of of a nucleus and also electrons orbiting the nucleus.The electrons cannot orbit the cell core at any type of distance in the atomic room surrounding the nucleus, but only certain, very certain orbits space allowed, and only exist in specific discrete levels. These energies are referred to as energy levels. A huge number of atom gather to form a crystal, and also interacts in a heavy material, then the energy levels ended up being so carefully spaced the they kind bands. This is the energy band.Metals, semiconductors and insulators are identified from each others by their tape structures. Your band frameworks are displayed in the number below.


In metals, the conduction band and also the valence tape come really closer to every other and may also overlap, with the Fermi energy (Ef) somewhere inside. This way that the metal always has electrons that have the right to move freely and also so can always carry current. Together electrons are known as complimentary electrons. These complimentary electrons are responsible for present that flows through a metal.

In semiconductors and also insulators, the valance band and conduction band are separated through a forbidden power gap(Eg)of adequate width, and also the Fermi energy(Ef) is between the valence and also conduction band. To obtain to the conduction band, the electron has actually to obtain enough power to run the tape gap. As soon as this is done, it deserve to conduct.

In semiconductors at room temperature, the band void is smaller, there is enough thermal power to allow electrons to run the gap reasonably easily and make the transitions in conduction band, provided the semiconductor limited conductivity. At short temperature, no electron own sufficient power to occupy the conduction band and also thus no activity of charge is possible. At pure zero, semiconductors room perfect insulators, The thickness of electrons in conduction tape at room temperature is no as high together in metals, hence cannot conduct current as great as metal. The electrical conductivity of semiconductor is no as high as metal but likewise not as negative as electrical insulator. That is why, this kind of product is referred to as semiconductor - means fifty percent conductor.

The band void for insulators is large so very few electrons deserve to jump the gap. Therefore, current does not flow easily in insulators. The difference in between insulators and semiconductors is the size of the band void energy. In insulator where forbidden void is very large and as a result the power required through the electron to cross over to the conduction tape is practically huge enough. Insulators perform not conduct electrical energy easily. That means the electric conductivity of insulator is really poor.

Semiconductor crystal offered for IC etc. Is high purity single crystal silicon that 99.999999999%, however when actually making a circuit, impurities are added to control the electrical properties. Relying on the included impurities, they come to be n-type and p-type semiconductors.


Pentavalent phosphorus (P) or arsenic (As) are added to high purity silicon because that n-type semiconductors. This impurities are referred to as donors. The energy level that the donor is situated close come the conduction band, that is, the power gap is small. Then, electron at this energy level are quickly excited to the conduction band and contribute come the conductivity.

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On the other hand, trivalent boron (B) etc. Is included to p kind semiconductor. This is referred to as an acceptor. The power level of the acceptor is close to the valence band. Since there room no electron here, electron in the valence band are excited here. As a result, holes are developed in the valence band, which contributes come the conductivity.