Sugars are either monosaccharides or disaccharides. Monosaccharides room carbohydrates with just one sugar unit. Because that example, glucose, fructose and galactose. Disaccharides space sugars through two street units, for instance sucrose, lactose and also maltose.

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Structure that a disaccharide (Sucrose)

Maltose is known as malt sugar. The is obtained from barley, and consist of two glucose units. Maltose is taken into consideration by part consumers to it is in a healthy sugar than sucrose because it has actually a much lower glycemic index; an interpretation that it digests much more slowly. This is good for diabetic patients who require a slow release the glucose to the blood.

Sugars have actually various useful properties that are utilized by Food researchers to meet consumer needs. Important functional nature to be acquainted with include: sweetness, color, flavor, texture, preservative, and also fermentation.

Sweetness

Sugars have actually different levels of sweetness depending upon their chemical structure. Sucrose is normally used as a traditional for sweetness. It has a relative sweetness the 100. However, it is not the sweet sugar. Fructose is lot sweeter, getting to up come a family member sweetness 160. Glucose and lactose ~ above the various other hand, are not really sweet. Glucose has actually a relative sweetness the 80 and also lactose only 20. That explains why milk is no sweet, also though it contains up come 5% lactose.


Color and Flavor

Sugars may be reducing and also non-reducing. You’ll have actually a much better understanding the the chemistry of reducing sugars after you have done a class in necessary or food chemistry. Yet essentially what you need to recognize at this suggest is the reducing sugars deserve to react chemically with proteins in foods to develop a brown color, along with flavor compounds. We call this chemistry reaction maillard reaction or maillard browning. For example, as soon as you bake bread or grill meat, the dark shade crust or the grill marks the you see on the surface is together a an outcome of maillard reaction.

All monosaccharides room reducing sugars. However, only some disaccharides room reducing sugars. Maltose and also lactose are instances of disaccharides that are reducing sugars. Sucrose however, is no a to reduce sugar. Any browning the is resulted in by sucrose is not since of maillard reaction, but is attributed to caramelization. This is a different form of reaction that does not need the existence of proteins. When you warm sugar to a very high temperature, for example heating sucrose come 350 levels fahrenheit; it undergoes dehydration, decomposition and also polymerization to form new color and also flavor by-products.

Texture

Sugars to add viscosity, consistency or body to liquid foods such together juices and also syrups. Sugars have the capability to absorb water (hygroscopic). This building imparts moistness to assets such together breads and also cakes. In ice-cream, sugars impart softness and creaminess by lowering the freezing suggest of water and also preventing the ice-cream from freezing right through. Freezing best through would make ice-cream rock-hard.

Preservative

Sugars are natural preservatives. Sugars tie water in solution and also dehydrate microorganisms, staying clear of them from growing.

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Fermentation

Sugars can be fermented through yeast to create carbon dioxide and also flavor by-products. Common examples of fermentation is checked out in the manufacturing of beer, wine and also bread. In the instance of bread, in addition to the production of flavors, fermentation that sugars cause bread to rise, providing volume and also a distinct crumb texture.

Reference: Potter, N. N. & Hotchkiss J. H. (1998). Food Science, 5th edition. Brand-new York, NY: Springer Science+Business Media LLC.