A federal government in which strength is in the hands of a single person.

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feudalismA political mechanism in i beg your pardon nobles space granted usage of lands the legally belong to your king, in exchange for your loyalty, military service, and also protection of the people who live ~ above the land.
fiefAn heritage granted to a vassal by a mr under the feudal device in middle ages Europe.
noblesWealthy landowners who pledged their loyalty to the king.
lordIn feudal Europe, a human being who managed land and also could because of this grant estates to vassals.
knightsIn medieval Europe, an armored warrior that sometimes dealt with on horseback.
peasantsVast bulk of people during Europe's medieval period; often engaged in farming.
serfsA medieval peasant legit bound to live on a lord's estate; tied come the land.
vassalsIn Europe, a human being who got a provide of land native a lord in exchange because that a pledge that loyalty and also services.
chivalryA password of actions for knights in middle ages Europe, stressing ideals such as courage, loyalty, and devotion.
troubadourA medieval poet and musician that traveled from place to place, entertaining people with songs of courtly love.
institutionsOrganized body or groups which aid political, economic, and also social power; government of ancient Rome or the catholic Church during the middle ages.
Roman Catholic ChurchDominant spiritual institution during Europe's middle ages period.
clergyMembers of religious institutions, such as priests and also monks.
monksMembers of spiritual monastic communities.
monasteriesReligious neighborhoods of men (called monks) that have offered up their possessions to dedicate themselves come a life of prayer and also worship.
literacythe ability to read, write and also speak fluently in a language.
classical textsBooks based on the Greek and also Roman classics.
scribeA experienced record goalkeeper who can read and write.
water-powered millTechnological innovation during the medieval duration in Europe; provided to grind grain.
three ar systemA mechanism of farming arisen in medieval Europe, in i beg your pardon farmland was divided into three areas of same size and also each that these to be successively planted through a winter crop, spring crop, and left unplanted (fallow).
fallowUnplanted; as in the three ar system.
manorialismThe financial system the the center ages; based on self-sufficiency.
self-sufficientBeing able to carry out for her own requirements without help from others; "a self-sufficing financial unit"
1st crusade1096-99; urged by occupation that Anatolia and jerusalem by the Seljuk Turks.
2nd crusade1147-49; fail to capture Damascus and also Edessa.
3rd crusade1189-92; led by Philip II Augustus of France and Richard ns (the Lion-heart) of England.
4th crusade1202-04; to be diverted by its Venetian jae won backers come sack and divide Constantinople.
crusader statesStates establish within the east Mediterranean through Christian crusaders throughout the crusades.
bubonic plagueA deadly condition that spread throughout Asia and Europe in the mid-14th century, killing millions of people; likewise know as the black Death.
towns & citiesEmerged throughout the so late Middle ages in Europe.
cathedralsLarge churches develop during the middle ages; regularly Gothic in style.
RomanesqueRelating to a layout of church style that developed during the late roman inn Empire and also early middle Ages., featuring ribbed vaults, stained glass windows, flying buttresses, sharp arches, and also tall spires.
GothicRelating come a layout of church style that developed in medieval Europe, special ribbed vaults, stained glass windows, paris buttresses, spicy arches, and also tall spires.
flying buttressesSupport structure situated on the exterior the gothic format cathedrals.
Charlemagne768-843; reunited western Europe because that the an initial time because the roman inn Empire.
Pope Leo III800; Pope who crowned Charlemagne the Emperor that the Romans
Pope metropolitan II1095; calls for the an initial crusade to recapture Jerusalem.
Richard ns (Lion Heart)King the England; participates and is caught during the third crusade.
social structureA pecking order of social status; reduced classes in ~ the bottom, upper classes at the top.
social mobilitythe ability to change ones' social course within a social hierarchy.

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technological innovationnew invention and technology
cultural diffusionThe spread out of culture from one location to another.