What renders a fire burn? Whyis one fire a roaring inferno while one more barely creeps along?Fire is a chemical reaction in which power in the type of heat isproduced. When forest fuels burn,there is a chemical mix of the oxygen in the air with woody material,pitch and other burnable elements found in the woodland environment.This procedure in known as �Combustion.�Combustion is a chain reaction chemically similar to photosynthesis inreverse.

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Photosynthesis needs a big amount of warmth which is furnished through thesun. The combustion processreleases this heat. The tremendousamount of heat that is developed in the burning process is the major reason thatthe suppression the wildfires is together a an overwhelming task and why the usage ofprescribed fire is a complex and exacting process requiring knowledgeable andexperienced people.

The combustion process or �fire� is sometimes dubbed �rapidoxidation.� that is comparable to theformation the rust on stole or the degeneration of dead hardwood in the forest, other than thatthe procedure is significantly speeded up.

Fire starts with ignition. Thematch is a typical ignition device. Frictioncreates adequate heat come ignite the phosphorus ~ above the finish of the match.Combustion occurs and the enhance flames.

Heat is important to begin the burning process.Once started, fire to produce its own heat.Wild land fires originate from such sources of warmth as matches, embersfrom cigarettes, cigars or pipes, campfires, garbage fires, exhaust sparks fromrailroad locomotives, sparks indigenous brake shoes or �hot-box� on rail cars.lightning, voluntarily combustion, warm ashes and arson.

The Fire Triangle

Three things are compelled in appropriate combinationbefore ignition and also combustion can take place---Heat, Oxygen and also Fuel.

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Fuel pre-heating
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Pre-ignition
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Flaming stage
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Flaming & Residual exhilaration Generation
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Residual /Smoldering
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Glowing Heat is Energy

Sources of warm are:

sun Atomic Volcanoes Fires

The sunlight is the significant source of heat.Heat from the sun drives our weather.

With a constant supply of heat (furnished bythe combustion process itself), the ignition of additional fuel will proceed aslong as there is enough oxygen present. Thusit is evident that this three aspects must it is in present and also satisfactorilycombined before combustion deserve to occur and continue.For the services of simplicity we speak to this the �Fire Triangle.�

Remove any one that the 3 sides or elementsand the fire will cease to burn. Weakenany one, and the fire will weaken. Increaseany one or more of the elements, and also the fire will increase in intensity. Armedwith this knowledge the fire fighter or the prescribed burner have the right to do much tomanage a fire.

Demonstration

CAUTION: the jar gets hot! do not touchit there is no protection. Young kids should not attempt this exercisewithout adult supervision.

There room various ways in i beg your pardon the fire triangle deserve to be broken or altered.One instance of how the triangle deserve to be damaged can it is in done through a brief candle and a jar. Light the candle and collection it on a level surface. After ~ it�s burn well, location the jug upside-down over the candle.After a short time, the candle will go out.This wake up because every one of the oxygen inside the jar has actually been offered up through the burn candle and no added oxygen can gain to the candle since of the jar. Before you placed the jar over the burning candle, you had actually all the ingredients crucial for combustion; heat from the match, fuel in the candle and also oxygen indigenous the air.

Relight the candle. This time, take it a pair of scissors and cut turn off the wick below the flame and also remove the candle. Again, the fire will certainly go the end after a short duration when the rest of the wick the was left ~ above the scissors is consumed. This time you had actually plenty of oxygen in the air but you eliminated the fuel.The same principle is offered in fighting wildfires.Remove heat, oxygen or fuel and also the fire walk out.

In suppression the a wildfire, the target is come stop burning by removing or altering one or more sides the the triangle.

Stages of combustion: flaming stages (see pictures from lab)

Pre-heating � temperature of the fuel is raised to the allude where gases start to volatize

Pre-ignition � volatile products in the fuel are vaporized

Flaming � the ignition temperature of the fuel is reached and also combustion begins

Transition � fuel is partially consumed by burning while flaming continues in sections of the fuel resulting in initiation the smoldering and also smoke generation

Smoldering � burning of the fuel is essentially complete where oxygen is available and smoldering continues resulting in exhilaration generation

Glowing � a stage of combustion where oxygen is limited

The 4 most essential stages of combustion for prescribed burners are,

pre-ignition (fuel is around to burst right into flame)

flaming � active combustion

transition � acting generation begins

smoldering � residual exhilaration production

Suppressing fire and also smoke generation (segment top top Suppression)

When a wildfire has started, we shot to remove the oxygen next of the triangle by smothering the fire through a fire retardant, foam, dirt or water in a fine spray or fog. Castle will replace the oxygen around the fuel affecting one side of the fire triangle.They also absorb heat and thus likewise alter the warmth side the the triangle.Retardants will certainly coat the fuel and also protect that from the heat also after the water has actually evaporated. They additionally inhibit the flaming burning by chemical action.Foams additionally coat the fuel and last much longer than water.They reduce heat and supply that oxygen to the fuel.They will adhere to upright fuel and also can it is in easily applied by soil units.

Water absorbs vast amounts that heat, particularly when used as a fog.Each droplet absorbs a large amount of heat which transforms the water into a warm gas or vapor (steam). The hot vapor is then distributed by the wind right into the atmosphere.However, water is heavy and also it is complicated to provide it come the fireline in inaccessible areas. There is also the possibility of running the end at the most inappropriate time and losing the fire.

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In forest conditions, among the an ext important viewpoints to suppression the wildfires is remove of the third side the the triangle--Fuel.The fuel is removed by structure a fireline thus separating the fuels.When the wildfire burns as much as the fireline, no an ext fuel is easily accessible and the fire go out. The fire heat is usually built with a tractor-plow unit or through hand.(In the Western part of the united States, bulldozers and handcrews space used because of the steep, rocky conditions.)In part areas, helitack crews and committed ground tools are used.

Removing Fuel

Removing the fuel source is the many common method of attacking wildfires.This an approach does no extinguish the fire.The fire proceeds to burn until the fuel within the fireline is consumed. Removal of fuel in the course of the fire avoids the fire indigenous spreading.A progressively advancing fire burning thin groundfuels may be confirm by constructing a fireline down to mineral soil.A hot, fast-running fire may require number of firelines, burning the end the fuel between the firelines and also the fire or a combination of both.

Good firefighting procedure is regularly a skillful combination of removed fuel, heat, and also oxygen. Therefore, when you handle a walking fire, you should take into consideration how ideal you can use personnel and equipment to remove one or every one of the political parties of the fire triangle.1. Fire is a- select response -a. Chemical reactionb. Molecular reactionc. Contrived solution to details conditionsd. Atom reaction2. The heat energy given turn off by a fire have the right to be regarded a stored power from- select solution -a. Unknown sourcesb. The product the photosynthesisc. Atom actiond. The sun3. The 3 legs that the fire triangle are- select response -a. Fire, sun, atmosphereb. Heat, fuel, energyc. Ignition temp., oxygen, fueld. Match, leaves, wind4. Fire is a- select solution -a. Explosionb. Chain reactionc. Mysterious phenomenond. An outcome of to move breakdown5. The fire stages of fire, the flaming stages, are- select an answer -a. Pre-heat, pre-ignition, flaming, combustion, glowingb. Pre-ignition, flaming, combustion, residual, glowingc. Pre-heat, flaming, combustion, smoldering, glowingd. Pre-heat, pre-ignition, flaming, transition, smoldering, glowing6. The two most necessary flaming stages because that prescribed burners are:- select response -a. Flaming, smolderingb. Flaming, transitionc. Transition, smolderingd. Smoldering, glowing7. Suppression or �holding� a prescribed fire consist of- select solution -a. Reducing temp or limiting oxygenb. Smothering or coolingc. Cooling or limiting oxygend. Limiting fuel or cooling