To understand the basic properties separating Metals, from Nonmentals and also Metalloids

An element is the simplest type of matter that cannot be split into less complicated substances or developed from simpler substances by any type of ordinary usmam.orgical or physical method. There room 110 elements known to us, out of which 92 are normally occurring, if the rest have been prepared artificially. Elements are further classified into metals, non-metals, and metalloids.

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Table 2.11.1: Characteristic nature of metallic and non-metallic elements:

Metallic Elements

Nonmetallic elements

Distinguishing luster (shine)

Non-lustrous, various colors

Malleable and also ductile (flexible) as solids

Brittle, difficult or soft

Conduct heat and also electricity

Poor conductors

Metallic oxides are basic, ionic

Nonmetallic oxides room acidic, compounds

Cations in aqueous solution

Anions, oxyanions in aqueous solution


Metals

All elements except hydrogen, which kind positive ion by losing electrons throughout usmam.orgical reactions are referred to as metals. Therefore metals room electropositive elements. They are characterized by bright luster, hardness, ability to resonate sound and also are fantastic conductors of heat and also electricity. Steels are solids under normal conditions except for Mercury.


Physical nature of Metals

Metals room lustrous, malleable, ductile, good conductors of heat and electricity. Other properties include:

State: metals are solids in ~ room temperature with the exemption of mercury, which is fluid at room temperature (Gallium is liquid on hot days). Luster: Metals have actually the top quality of reflecting light native its surface and also can be sleek e.g., gold, silver and copper. Malleability: Metals have the ability to withstand hammering and also can be made right into thin sheets well-known as foils (a sugar cube chunk that gold have the right to be pounded into a slim sheet which will certainly cover a football field). Ductility: Metals have the right to be drawn into wires. 100 gm that silver can be drawn into a slim wire around 200 meter long. Hardness: All steels are hard other than sodium and potassium, which are soft and also can be reduced with a knife. Valency: Metals have 1 to 3 electrons in the outermost shell of their atoms. Conduction: steels are great conductors due to the fact that they have complimentary electrons. Silver and copper are the two ideal conductors the heat and also electricity. Command is the poorest conductor of heat. Bismuth, mercury and also iron are additionally poor conductors Density: Metals have actually high density and are really heavy. Iridium and osmium have the highest densities where as lithium has the shortest density. Melting and also Boiling Points: Metals have actually high melting and boiling point. Tungsten has actually the highest possible melting suggest where as silver has low boiling point. Sodium and potassium have low melting points.

usmam.orgical nature of Metals

Metals are electropositive aspects that generally form basic or amphoteric oxides with oxygen. Other usmam.orgical nature include:

Electropositive Character: metals tend to have low ionization energies, and also typically shed electrons (i.e. Are oxidized) as soon as they undergo usmam.orgical reactions They normally do no accept electrons. Because that example:

Alkali steels are always 1+ (lose the electron in s subshell) Alkaline planet metals are always 2+ (lose both electron in s subshell) transition metal ions perform not monitor an evident pattern, 2+ is common, and also 1+ and 3+ are additionally observed link of steels with non-metals tend to it is in ionic in nature Most steel oxides are straightforward oxides and also dissolve in water to form metal hydroxides:

Metal oxide + water -> steel hydroxide

Na2O(s) + H2O(l) -> 2NaOH(aq)

CaO(s) + H2O(l) -> Ca(OH)2(aq)

metal oxides exhibit their basic usmam.orgistry nature by reacting with acids to type salts and also water:

Metal oxide + mountain -> salt + water

MgO(s) + HCl(aq) -> MgCl2(aq) + H2O(l)

NiO(s) + H2SO4(aq) -> NiSO4(aq) + H2O(l)


Example

What is the usmam.orgical formula for aluminum oxide?

Solution

Al has 3+ charge, the oxide ion is O2-, hence Al2O3


Example

Would you suppose it to be solid, fluid or gas at room temp?

Solutions

Oxides of metals are characteristically solid at room temp


Example

Write the balanced usmam.orgical equation because that the reaction the aluminum oxide v nitric acid:

Solution

Metal oxide + mountain -> salt + water

Al2O3(s) + 6HNO3(aq) -> 2Al(NO3)3(aq) + 3H2O(l)


Nonmetals

Elements that tend to gain electrons to kind anions during usmam.orgical reactions are dubbed non-metals. These are electronegative elements. They room non-lustrous, brittle and poor conductors that heat and electricity (except graphite). Non-metals deserve to be gaseous, liquids or solids.


Physical nature of nonmetals:

Physical State: many of the non-metals exist in 2 of the three claims of matter at room temperature: gases (oxygen) and solids (carbon). Non-Malleable and Ductile: Non-metals are very brittle, and cannot it is in rolled into wires or pounded right into sheets. Conduction: castle are poor conductors the heat and also electricity. Luster: These have actually no metallic luster and also do no reflect irradiate Conductivity: negative conductors that heat and electricity Melting and also Boiling Points: The melting points that non-metals are generally lower than steels Seven non-metals exist under standard conditions as diatomic molecules: H2(g) N2(g) O2(g) F2(g) Cl2(g) Br2(l) I2(l) (volatile liquid - evaporates readily)

usmam.orgical properties of Nonmetals

Non-metals have a tendency to acquire or share electron with various other atoms. They are electronegative in character. Nonmetals, when reacting with metals, tend to gain electrons (typically attaining noble gas electron configuration) and become anions:

Nonmetal + metal -> Salt

<3Br_2(l) + 2Al_(s) ightarrow 2AlBr_3(s)>

compounds composed totally of nonmetals are molecular building materials (not ionic). They generally form acidic or neutral oxides through oxygen the that dissolve in water reaction to type acids:

Nonmetal oxide + water -> acid

(carbonated water is contempt acidic)

Nonmetal oxides can combine with bases to form salts.

Nonmetal oxide + basic -> salt


Metalloids

Properties intermediate in between the metals and also nonmetals. Metalloids are advantageous in the semiconductor industry.

metals Non-metals Metalloids
Gold Oxygen Silicon
Silver Carbon Boron
Copper Hydrogen Arsenic
Iron Nitrogen Antimony
Mercury Sulphur Germanium
Zinc Phosphorus

Physical nature of Metalloids

State: They room all solid in ~ room temperature. Conduction: part metalloids, such as silicon and also germanium, have the right to act as electrical conductors under the best conditions, for this reason they are referred to as semi-conductors.

Luster: Silicon for example appears lustrous, but is not simple or ductile (it is brittle - a characteristics of some nonmetals). The is a much poorer conductor of heat and also electricity 보다 the metals.

Solid Solutions: castle can form alloys with various other metals.

usmam.orgical properties of Metalloids

your physical properties have tendency to be metallic, however their usmam.orgistry properties have tendency to be non-metallic. The oxidation number of an aspect in this team can selection from +3 to -2, depending upon the team in which that is located.

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Trends in Metallic and Nonmetallic Character

Metallic character is strongest for the aspects in the leftmost part of the regular table, and also tends come decrease together we move to the right in any duration (nonmetallic character increases with boosting ionization values). Within any kind of group of aspects (columns), the metallic character rises from optimal to bottom (the ionization values typically decrease together we move down a group). This general trend is not have to observed v the transition metals.