Problem: What are the requirements for and characteristics of a candle flame? What space the assets of the combustion of a candle?




large birthday candles matches

shallow metal dish 25-mL limewater solution

(I provided disposable miniature loaf pans) 250-mL beaker

500-mL Erlenmeyer flask solid rubber stopper come fit the flask

wire gauze square tongs


1. Irradiate a candle and allow a drop or 2 of fluid wax to fall into the facility of the pan.. Press the candle upright top top the melted wax prior to it deserve to solidify. If the candle burns too low during the adhering to procedures, repeat this step with a new candle.

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2. Watch the fire of the burning candle for a couple of minutes. Shot to watch what is burning and also where the burning takes place. Observe the various regions of the flame. Do at least eight observations, and also record them in the data table below.

3. Irradiate a second candle and hold the flame around 2 centimeter to 4 centimeter to the next of the an initial candle flame. Tenderness blow out the first candle flame, then conveniently move the fire of the 2nd candle into the smoke from the an initial flame. Document your observations.

4. Relight the was standing candle. Through tongs, hold the cable gauze over the flame, perpendicular come the candle. Progressively lower the gauze top top the flame. Do allow the gauze to touch the candle wax. If the flame goes out, easily move the cable gauze off to the side. Document your observations.

5. Fill the 250-mL beaker v cold tap water, dry the outside of the beaker, and hold it about 3 cm to 5 cm above the candle flame. Document your observations.

6. To water tap water right into the pan come a depth of about 1 cm.

7. Easily lower one Erlenmeyer flask end the lit candle so the the mouth the the flask is below the surface ar of the water. Enable the flask to continue to be in place for roughly one minute. Record your observations.

8. Lift the flask out of the water, rotate it upright, and also add around 25 mL the limewater. Stopper the flask and swirl the systems for approximately one minute. Record your observations. If the systems becomes cloudy or chalky, calcium carbonate was formed, describe the existence of carbon dioxide in the flask.


Procedure StepObservations


1. Which changes that you provided in action 2 were physical? Which to be chemical?

2. Perform your outcomes in action 3 indicate that the candle wax burns as a solid, a liquid, or a vapor? Explain.

3. One requirement for combustion is the presence of fuel. Translate your outcomes from procedures 4 and 7 to identify the other requirements.

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4. Based ~ above your evaluation of the monitorings from procedures 5 and 8, what space two assets of the combustion of the candle?

5. Sir Humphry Davy invented a security lamp because that miners in i m sorry a fire was surrounded by a cable gauze cylinder. Define the factor why the lamp was created this way?

6. What change in water level emerged in procedure 7? suggest an explanation for this change.