IB HomeStandard LevelTopic 1: statistical AnalysisTopic 2: CellsTopic 3: chemistry of Life3.2 Carbohydrate, Lipid & ProteinTopic 4: GeneticsTopic 5: Ecology and also EvolutionTopic 6: wellness & PhysiologyHigher LevelTopic 7: Nucleic mountain & ProteinTopic 8: Respiration & picture ..Topic 9: tree ScienceTopic 10: GeneticsTopic 11: health and wellness & PhysiologyOptionsOption A: Nutrition & HealthOption B: Physiology that ExerciseOption C: Energy and also CellsOption D: EvolutionOption E: Neurobiology & Behav..Option F: Microbes & Biotech..Option G: Ecology & Conservat..Option H: more PhysiologyAdditional Resources

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3.2 Carbohydrates, Lipids and Proteins


3.2.1 Distinguish between organic and inorganic compounds

Organic compounds room compounds comprise carbon the are discovered in living things - except hydrogen carbonates (HCO3-), carbonates (CO32-) and also oxides of carbon (CO, CO2)Inorganic compounds are all other compounds (there space less various inorganic compounds than organic compounds)


Carbohydrates space organic compound consisting that one or an ext simple street that together monomers monitor the general an easy formula of (CH2O)x

Note: exception to this an easy formula and also the inclusion of other atoms (e.g. N) can occur

3.2.2 recognize glucose and ribose from diagrams mirroring their structure

Glucose (C6H12O6) Ribose (C5H10O5)


3.2.3 perform three instances each that monosaccharides, disaccharides and also polysaccharides

Monosaccharides:  Glucose, galactose, fructose

Disaccharides: Lactose, maltose, sucrose

Polysaccharides: Cellulose, glycogen, starch

3.2.4 State one role of glucose, lactose and glycogen in animals and also of fructose, sucrose and cellulose in plants


Glucose: A resource of power which have the right to be damaged down to type ATP via to move respiration

Lactose: A sugar discovered in the milk that mammals, providing power for suckling infants

Glycogen: provided by animals for short term power storage (between meals) in the liver


Fructose: uncovered in honey and also onions, it is very sweet and also a good source of energy

Sucrose: Used generally as a transportable energy type (e.g. Sugar beets and sugar cane)

Cellulose: used by plant cells together a strengthening ingredient of the cell wall

3.2.5 overview the function of condensation and hydrolysis in the relationship in between monosaccharides, disaccharides and also polysaccharides

Condensation (dehydration) reactions happen when molecules are covalently joined together and water is formed as a by-productIn carbohydrates, the bond that is created is called a glycosidic linkageThe the contrary of a condensation reaction is a hydrolysis reaction, which requires a water molecule to break a covalent bond in between two subunitsMonosaccharides are single monomers that room joined to kind disaccharides, while street containing lot of subunits (more than 10) are called polysaccharides

A Condensation Reaction in between Two Monosaccharides




3.2.5 synopsis the role of condensation and also hydrolysis in the relationship in between fatty acids, glycerol and also triglycerides

A condensation reaction occurs in between the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol and also the carboxyl teams of three fatty acidsThis reaction forms a triglyceride (and 3 molecules of water)The bond in between the glycerol and also the fatty acids is one ester linkageWhen among the fat acids is changed by a phosphate group and phospholipid is formedHydrolysis reaction will, in the visibility of water, break this molecules down right into their constituent subunits

Formation the a Triglyceride

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3.2.6 State three attributes of lipids

Structure:  Phospholipids room a key component of cabinet membranes

Hormonal signalling: Steroids are affiliated in hormonal signalling (e.g. Estrogen, progesterone, testosterone)

Insulation: fat in animals can offer as heat insulators when sphingolipids in the myelin sheath (of neurons) can serve as electric insulators 

Protection:  Triglycerides may form a tissue layer roughly many an essential internal offal and carry out protection versus physical injury

Storage that energy: Triglycerides have the right to be used as a long-term power storage source

3.2.7 compare the use of carbohydrates and lipids in energy storage


Complex carbohydrate (e.g. Polysaccharides) and lipids both save on computer a many chemical energy and also can be supplied for power storageComplex carbohydrates and also lipids are both insoluble in water - they are not easily transportedCarbohydrates and also lipids both burn cleaner 보다 proteins (they carry out not productivity nitrogenous wastes)


Lipid molecules contain much more energy per gram 보다 carbohydrates (about double as much)Carbohydrates are an ext readily digested than lipids and also release your energy more rapidlyMonosaccharides and also disaccharides room water soluble and also easier to carry to and also from storage sites 보다 lipidsAnimals tend to use carbohydrates mostly for short-term power storage, while lipids room used more for long-term energy storageCarbohydrates space stored as glycogen in pets while lipids room stored as fats (in tree carbohydrates room stored together cellulose and lipids together oils)Lipids have less effect on osmotic pressure within a cell than complicated carbohydrates

Types that Amino Acids

3.2.5 rundown the function of condensation and hydrolysis in the relationship in between amino acids and also polypeptides

A condensation reaction occurs between the amino group (NH2) that one amino acid and the carboxylic acid group (COOH) of another amino acidThis reaction creates a dipeptide (plus a molecule that water) that is hosted together by a peptide bondMultiple amino acids have the right to be joined together to type a polypeptide chainIn the existence of water, polypeptides have the right to be broken down right into individual amino acids via hydrolysis reactions