describe and also explain how electrical conductivity varies across period 3

Electrical conductivity

The table shows electric conductivity worths for the facets Na to Ar, relative to aluminium.

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ElementSymbolAtomic numberElectrical conductivity
sodiumNa110.55
magnesiumMg120.61
aluminiumAl131.00
siliconSi140.10
phosphorusP150
sulfurS160
chlorineCl170
argonAr180

Substances conduct power if castle contain charged particles that can move from ar to location when a potential distinction is applied.

The table give some information around different substances.

SubstanceNotes
metalconduct as soon as solid or liquid
covalent substancesdo not conduct (graphite is an exception)
ionic compoundsconduct when liquified or once liquid

Description of trend

The graph shows how electric conductivity varies across duration 3.

There is a lot walk on in this graph, so the is often easier to division it right into three sections. The table listed below gives a brief summary of these sections.

ElementsType of elementType the structureDescription
Na, Mg, Almetalmetallicconductivity boosts from Na to Al
Simetalloidgiant covalentconductivity much much less than Na, Mg and Al
P, S, Cl, Arnon-metalsimple molecular(Ar is monatomic)do not conduct electricity

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Explanation the this trend

Sodium, magnesium and also aluminium

Sodium, magnesium and also aluminium room all metals. They have actually metallic bonding, in i beg your pardon the nuclei of steel atoms room attracted to delocalised electrons.

Going from sodium to aluminium:

the number of delocalised electrons boosts …there are an ext electrons that can move and carry charge with the structure…the electric conductivity increases.

Silicon

Silicon has a huge covalent structure. That is a semiconductor, so the is not a great conductor or a good insulator.

Phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine and argon

The remaining aspects in period 3 perform not command electricity. They have no cost-free electrons that can move around and also carry fee from location to place.


Metallic bonding is frequently incorrectly defined as the attraction in between positive metal ions and delocalised electrons. However, metals still consist of atoms, but the outer electrons room not linked with any particular atom.

In a comparable way, graphite (a non-metal) also has delocalised electrons. However, girlfriend don't view the idea that it consists of carbon ions.

The large lattice framework of silicon is comparable to that of diamond. Each silicon atom is covalently bonded to 4 other silicon atom in a tetrahedral arrangement.

The atoms in molecule of phosphorus, sulfur and also chlorine are organized together through covalent bonds.

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