A) mix a heat-killed pathogenic strain of bacteria with a living nonpathogenic strain can transform some that the life cells into the pathogenic form.

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B) mix a heat-killed nonpathogenic strain of bacteria v a living pathogenic strain makes the pathogenic stress, overload nonpathogenic.

C) Infecting mice v nonpathogenic strains that bacteria provides them resistant come pathogenic strains.

D) mice infected with a pathogenic stress, overload of bacteria deserve to spread the infection to various other mice.



2) how do us describe transformation in bacteria?

A) the production of a strand that DNA native an RNA molecule

B) the development of a strand that RNA native a DNA molecule

C) the infection of cell by a phage DNA molecule

D) adaptation of outside DNA into a cell



3) After mix a heat-killed, phosphorescent (light-emitting) strain of bacteria with a living, nonphosphorescent strain, you uncover that several of the living cell are currently phosphorescent. I m sorry observation(s) would carry out the best evidence the the capacity to phosphoresce is a heritable trait?

A) evidence that DNA to be passed native the heat-killed stress, overload to the life strain

B) proof that protein passed native the heat-killed stress, overload to the life strain

C) especially bright phosphorescence in the living strain

D) phosphorescence in descendants of the living cells



4) In trying to recognize whether DNA or protein is the genetic material, Hershey and Chase made use of i beg your pardon of the complying with facts?

A) DNA has sulfur, whereas protein walk not.

B) DNA includes phosphorus, whereas protein go not.

C) DNA consists of nitrogen, conversely, protein go not.

D) DNA consists of purines, whereas protein includes pyrimidines.



5) i m sorry of the adhering to investigators was (were) responsible because that the adhering to discovery?

In DNA from any type of species, the quantity of adenine amounts to the amount of thymine, and the quantity of guanine equates to the quantity of cytosine.

A) Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase

B) Oswald Avery, Maclyn McCarty, and also Colin MacLeod

C) Erwin Chargaff

D) Matthew Meselson and also Franklin Stahl



6) Cytosine renders up 42% the the nucleotides in a sample that DNA native an organism. Roughly what percentage of the nucleotides in this sample will be thymine?

A) 8%

B) 16%

C) 42%

D) 58%



7) the became obvious to Watson and also Crick after perfect of their version that the DNA molecule could carry a substantial amount that hereditary info in which of the following?

A) sequence of bases

B) phosphate-sugar backbones

C) safety pairing of bases

D) side teams of nitrogenous bases



8) In an analysis of the nucleotide composition of DNA, i m sorry of the adhering to will it is in found?

A) A = C

B) A = G and also C = T

C) A + C = G + T

D) G + C = T + A



9) because that a science fair project, 2 students chose to repeat the Hershey and also Chase experiment, with modifications. They made decision to label the nitrogen of the DNA, fairly than the phosphate. Castle reasoned the each nucleotide has only one phosphate and two to 5 nitrogens. Thus, labeling the nitrogens would provide a stronger signal than labeling the phosphates. Why won"t this experiment work?

A) there is no radiation isotope of nitrogen.

B) radioactive nitrogen has a half-life the 100,000 years, and the product would be as well dangerous for too long.

C) Although over there are much more nitrogens in a nucleotide, labeled phosphates actually have actually sixteen extra neutrons; therefore, castle are an ext radioactive.

D) Amino acids (and therefore proteins) also have nitrogen atoms; thus, the radioactivity would not distinguish in between DNA and proteins.



10) Hershey and also Chase set out to determine what molecule offered as the unit that inheritance. They perfect a collection of experiments in which E. Coli was infected by a T2 virus. Which molecular component of the T2 virus actually ended up within the cell?

A) protein


C) ribosome




11) In the polymerization of DNA, a phosphodiester bond is formed between a phosphate team of the nucleotide being added and _____ the the critical nucleotide in the polymer.

A) the 5" phosphate B) C6 C) the 3" five D) a nitrogen native the nitrogen-containing basic



12) Replication in prokaryotes differs from replication in eukaryotes because that which that the following reasons?

A) prokaryotes chromosomes have histones, whereas eukaryotic chromosomes carry out not.

B) prokaryotes chromosomes have a single origin of replication, whereas eukaryotic bio chromosomes have many.

C) The price of elongation during DNA replication is slower in prokaryotes 보다 in eukaryotes.

D) Prokaryotes develop Okazaki fragments throughout DNA replication, yet eukaryotes execute not.



13) What is supposed by the description "antiparallel" concerning the strands that comprise DNA?

A) The twisting nature the DNA create nonparallel strands. B) The 5" to 3" direction that one strand runs respond to to the come direction of the other strand. C) base pairings develop unequal spacing in between the two DNA strands. D) One strand includes only purines and also the other consists of only pyrimidines.



14) expect you are noted with an proactively dividing culture of E. Coli bacteria come which radiation thymine has been added. What would take place if a cell replicates once in the presence of this radiation base?

A) among the daughter cells, but not the other, would have actually radioactive DNA.

B) no of the 2 daughter cells would certainly be radioactive.

C) All 4 bases the the DNA would certainly be radioactive.

D) DNA in both daughter cells would be radioactive.



15) In E. Coli, there is a mutation in a gene dubbed dnaB that changes the helicase that generally acts in ~ the origin. I m sorry of the complying with would you intend as a an outcome of this mutation?

A) added proofreading will certainly occur.

B) No replication fork will certainly be formed.

C) Replication will take place via RNA polymerase alone.

D) Replication will need a DNA theme from one more source.



16) In E. Coli, i m sorry enzyme catalyzes the elongation that a brand-new DNA strand in the → direction?

A) primase B) DNA ligase C) DNA polymerase III D) helicase



17) eukaryotic telomeres replicate differently than the remainder of the chromosome. This is a repercussion of which of the following?

A) the development of telomerase enzyme B) DNA polymerase that cannot replicate the leading strand theme to the 5" end C) gaps left at the 5" end of the lagging strand D) gaps left at the 3" end of the lagging strand because of the require for a inside wall



18) just how does the enzyme telomerase meet the difficulty of replicating the ends of direct chromosomes?

A) the adds a solitary cap structure that resists degradation by nucleases. B) it causes details double-strand DNA division that result in blunt ends top top both strands. C) it catalyzes the lengthening that telomeres, compensating for the shortening that might occur throughout replication without telomerase activity. D) it adds many GC pairs, which withstand hydrolysis and also maintain chromosome integrity.



19) The DNA that telomeres has actually been highly conserved transparent the advancement of eukaryotes. This most most likely reflects _____.

A) the low frequency the mutations developing in this DNA B) ongoing evolution that telomeres C) that brand-new mutations in telomeres have actually been advantageous D) a an essential function the telomeres



20) at a specific area the a chromosome, the succession of nucleotides listed below is existing where the chain opens to form a replication fork:

3" C C T A G G C T G C A A T C C 5"

An RNA primer is formed beginning at the underlined T (T) the the template. I beg your pardon of the adhering to represents the inside wall sequence?

A) 5" G C C T A G G 3" B) 5" A C G T T A G G 3" C) 5" A C G U U A G G 3" D) 5" G C C U A G G 3"



21) In E. Coli, to fix a thymine dimer by nucleotide excision repair, in i beg your pardon order carry out the vital enzymes act?

A) nuclease, DNA polymerase III, RNA primase

B) helicase, DNA polymerase I, DNA ligase

C) DNA ligase, nuclease, helicase

D) nuclease, DNA polymerase I, DNA ligase



22) In E. Coli, what is the duty of DNA polymerase III?

A) to unwind the DNA helix during replication B) to seal together the damaged ends the DNA strands C) to add nucleotides to the finish of a cultivation DNA strand D) come degrade damaged DNA molecules



23) The difference between ATP and the nucleoside triphosphates used during DNA synthetic is the _____.

A) the nucleoside triphosphates have the street deoxyribose; ATP has the sugar ribose

B) the nucleoside triphosphates have actually two phosphate groups; ATP has actually three phosphate groups

C) ATP includes three high-energy bonds; the nucleoside triphosphates have actually two

D) ATP is found only in human cells; the nucleoside triphosphates are uncovered in every animal and plant cells



24) The leading and the lagging strands different in that _____.

A) the leading strand is synthesized in the same direction as the movement of the replication fork, and also the lagging strand is synthesized in the contrary direction B) the leading strand is synthesized by adding nucleotides to the end of the farming strand, and also the lagging strand is synthesized by adding nucleotides come the end C) the lagging strand is synthesized continuously, vice versa, the top strand is synthesized in brief fragments the are eventually stitched together D) the top strand is synthesized at twice the price of the lagging strand



25) A new DNA strand elongates just in the 5" to 3" direction due to the fact that _____.

A) DNA polymerase begins including nucleotides in ~ the 5" end of the layout B) the polarity of the DNA molecule prevents addition of nucleotides at the 3" end C) replication must progress toward the replication fork D) DNA polymerase can include nucleotides just to the free 3" finish



26) What is the function of topoisomerase?

A) relieving stress, overload in the DNA ahead of the replication fork

B) elongating new DNA at a replication fork by including nucleotides to the existing chain

C) unwinding of the dual helix

D) stability single-stranded DNA at the replication fork



27) What is the role of DNA ligase in the elongation of the lagging strand during DNA replication?

A) it synthesizes RNA nucleotides to make a primer.

B) It joins Okazaki fragments together.

C) the unwinds the parental double helix.

D) that stabilizes the unwound parental DNA.



28) i m sorry of the adhering to help(s) to hold the DNA strands apart while they are being replicated?

A) primase

B) ligase

C) DNA polymerase

D) single-strand DNA binding proteins



29) individuals with the disorder xeroderma pigmentosum are hypersensitive to sunlight. This occurs since their cells cannot_____.

A) replicate DNA

B) experience mitosis

C) exchange DNA with other cells

D) fix thymine dimers



30) which of the adhering to would you expect of a eukaryote doing not have telomerase?

A) a high probability the somatic cells coming to be cancerous

B) an inability to develop Okazaki fragments

C) an inability to fix thymine dimers

D) a palliation in chromosome size in gametes



31) In the so late 1950s, Meselson and Stahl grew bacteria in a tool containing "heavy" nitrogen (15N) and also then transferred them to a medium containing 14N. I beg your pardon of the results in the figure over would be meant after one ring of DNA replication in the existence of 14N?

A) A B) B C) C D) D



32) A an are probe returns with a culture of a virus found on a remote planet. Evaluation shows the it is a carbon-based life-form that has DNA. You grow the cells in 15N tool for several generations and also then carry them to 14N medium. Which pattern in the figure above would you intend if the DNA to be replicated in a conservative manner?

A) A B) B C) C D) D



33) after the first replication to be observed in your experiments experimentation the nature that DNA replication, Meselson and also Stahl can be i was sure of which of the adhering to conclusions?

A) Replication is semi-conservative.

B) Replication is no dispersive.

C) Replication is no conservative.

D) Replication is no dispersive nor conservative.



34) you briefly disclose bacteria experience DNA replication to radioactively labeling nucleotides. As soon as you centrifuge the DNA isolated from the bacteria, the DNA separates into two classes. One class of labeled DNA has very large molecules (thousands or also millions the nucleotides long), and the other includes brief stretches that DNA (several hundred to a few thousand nucleotides in length). These two classes of DNA most likely represent _____.

A) leading strands and Okazaki fragments

B) lagging strands and Okazaki fragments

C) Okazaki fragments and RNA primers

D) leading strands and RNA primers



35) in ~ a double-stranded DNA molecule, adenine forms hydrogen bonds with thymine and also cytosine develops hydrogen bonds with guanine. This plan _____.

A) enables variable width of the dual helix

B) permits complementary base pairing

C) determines the tertiary structure of a DNA molecule

D) identify the type of protein produced



36) Semiconservative replication involves a template. What is the template?

A) single-stranded binding proteins

B) DNA polymerase

C) one strand that the DNA molecule

D) an RNA molecule



37) DNA is synthesized through a procedure known together _____.

A) semiconservative replication

B) conservative replication

C) translation

D) transcription



38) that performed standard experiments that supported the semiconservative version of DNA replication?

A) Watson and also Crick

B) Meselson and also Stahl

C) Hershey and also Chase

D) Franklin and Wilkins



39) DNA contains the template needed to copy itself, but it has no catalytic task in cells. What catalyzes the development of phosphodiester binding between nearby nucleotides in the DNA polymer gift formed?

A) ribozymes

B) DNA polymerase


D) deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates



40) What gives the energy for the polymerization reaction in DNA synthesis?


B) DNA polymerase

C) breaking the hydrogen bonds in between complementary DNA strands

D) the deoxyribonucleotide triphosphate substrates



41) describe the figure above. What bases will certainly be included to the primer together DNA replication proceeds? The bases should appear in the brand-new strand in the order the they will be added starting at the 3" end of the primer.

A) C, A, G, C, A, G, A B) T, C, T, G, C, T, G C) A, G, A, C, G, A, C D) G, T, C, G, T, C, T



42) What is the difference in between the leading strand and the lagging strand in DNA replication?

A) The leading strand is synthesized in the 3"→5" direction in a discontinuous fashion, while the lagging strand is synthesized in the 5"→3" direction in a continuous fashion. B) The leading strand is synthesized consistently in the5"→3" direction, while the lagging strand is synthesized discontinuously in the 5" → 3" C) The leading strand requires an RNA primer, conversely, the lagging strand does not. D) over there are different DNA polymerases involved in elongation that the leading strand and the lagging strand.



43) What is a significant difference in between eukaryotic DNA replication and prokaryotic DNA replication?

A) prokaryotes replication does not require a primer. B) prokaryotes chromosomes have actually a single origin that replication, while eukaryotic chromosomes have multiple beginnings of replication. C) DNA replication in prokaryotic cells is conservative. DNA replication in eukaryotic bio cells is semi-conservative. D) DNA polymerases the prokaryotes can include nucleotides to both 3’and 5’ends that DNA strands, when those that eukaryotes duty only in the 5’ → 3’



44) What is a telomere?

A) the system that holds 2 sister chromatids together

B) DNA replication throughout telophase

C) the website of origin of DNA replication

D) the ends of straight chromosomes



45) Telomere shortening puts a border on the variety of times a cell deserve to divide. Study has presented that telomerase can prolong the life expectancy of cultured human being cells. Just how might adding telomerase impact cellular aging?

A) Telomerase will speed up the rate of cabinet proliferation.

B) Telomerase eliminates telomere shortening and also retards aging.

C) Telomerase shortens telomeres, which delays cellular aging.

D) Telomerase would have actually no result on cellular aging.



46) Telomere shortening is a problem in which species of cells?

A) just prokaryotic cells

B) only eukaryotic cells

C) cell in prokaryotes and eukaryotes



47) i m sorry of the adhering to cells have diminished or very small active telomerase activity?

A) many normal somatic cells

B) many normal germ cells

C) many cancer cells



48) Researchers uncovered E. Coli that had mutation prices one hundred times higher than normal. Which of the adhering to is the many likely reason of this results?

A) The single-stranded binding proteins to be malfunctioning. B) There were one or more mismatches in the RNA primer. C) The proofreading device of DNA polymerase was not functioning properly. D) The DNA polymerase was unable to include bases come the finish of the cultivation nucleic acid chain.



49) In a healthy cell, the rate of DNA fix is same to the price of DNA mutation. As soon as the rate of fix lags behind the price of mutation, what is a feasible fate the the cell?

A) The cell have the right to be reinvented to a cancerous cell. B) RNA might be used instead of DNA together inheritance material. C) The cabinet will end up being embryonic. D) DNA synthesis will proceed by a new mechanism.



50) which of the following statements explains a eukaryotic bio chromosome?

A) a single strand that DNA

B) a collection of nucleosomes wrapped roughly two DNA molecules

C) a chromosome with different numbers of genes in different cell species of one organism

D) a single linear molecule of double-stranded DNA add to proteins



51) If a cell to be unable to create histone proteins, i beg your pardon of the following would be a most likely effect?

A) There would certainly be an increase in the amount of "satellite" DNA developed during centrifugation.

B) The cell"s DNA couldn"t it is in packed into its nucleus.

C) Spindle fibers would certainly not type during prophase.

D) Amplification of other genes would compensate for the lack of histones.



52) i m sorry of the complying with statements is true the histones?

A) every nucleosome consists of 2 molecules of histone H1.

B) Histone H1 is not present in the nucleosome bead; instead, it draws the nucleosomes together.

C) The carboxyl end of every histone extends external from the nucleosome and also is called a "histone tail."

D) Histones are uncovered in mammals, but not in other pets or in plants or fungi.



53) Why do histones bind tightly to DNA?

A) Histones are positively charged, and also DNA is negatively charged.

B) Histones space negatively charged, and also DNA is positive charged.

C) Both histones and also DNA space strongly hydrophobic.

D) Histones are covalently linked to the DNA.



54) i m sorry of the following represents the order of increasingly greater levels of company of chromatin?

A) nucleosome, 30-nm dyed fiber, looped domain

B) looped domain, 30-nm chromatin fiber, nucleosome

C) nucleosome, looped domain, 30-nm chromatin fiber

D) 30-nm dyed fiber, nucleosome, looped domain



55) i beg your pardon of the adhering to statements explains chromatin?

A) Heterochromatin is created of DNA, conversely, euchromatin is made of DNA and RNA.

B) Both heterochromatin and also euchromatin are discovered in the cytoplasm.

C) Heterochromatin is extremely condensed, vice versa, euchromatin is much less compact.

D) Euchromatin is not transcribed, vice versa, heterochromatin is transcribed.



56) i beg your pardon of the complying with is most an important for the association between histones and also DNA?

A) Histones are tiny proteins.

B) Histones are very conserved (that is, histones space very comparable in every eukaryote).

C) There room at least five various histone proteins in every eukaryote.

D) Histones are positively charged.



57) In E. Coli replication the enzyme primase is used to affix a 5 to 10 basic ribonucleotide strand complementary come the parental DNA strand. The RNA strand serves together a starting point for the DNA

polymerase the replicates the DNA. If a mutation emerged in the primase gene, i beg your pardon of the complying with would you expect?

A) Replication would only take place on the top strand.

B) Replication would certainly only occur on the lagging strand.

C) Replication would certainly not occur on one of two people the top or lagging strand.

D) Replication would certainly not be impacted as the enzyme primase in involved with RNA synthesis.



58) Hershey and also Chase provided a DNA-based virus for your work. What would the results have been if they had used an RNA virus?

A) with an RNA virus radioactive protein would certainly have been in the final pellet. B) through an RNA virus radiation RNA would have been in the last pellet. C) v an RNA virus neither sample would certainly have had actually a radioactive pellet. D) through an RNA virus the protein shell would have actually been radioactive in both samples.



59) The lagging strand is defined by a collection of quick segments the DNA (Okazaki fragments) that will certainly be joined with each other to form a perfect lagging strand. The experiments that brought about the discovery of Okazaki

fragments gave evidence for which of the complying with ideas?

A) DNA polymerase is a directional enzyme the synthesizes leading and lagging strands throughout replication.

B) DNA is a polymer consisting of 4 monomers: adenine, thymine, guanine, and also cytosine.

C) DNA is the genetic material.

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D) bacterial replication is fundamentally various from eukaryotic bio replication. The vital shouldn’t be means longer than the distractors.