More than 1.2 million world in the US space living v an HIV infection. That is approximated that 1 in 8 carry out not recognize they room infected. With 50,000 brand-new infections each year, some doctors allude to a lack of testing and also misconceptions around the virus as a significant problem. Exactly how does the virus spread? that is susceptible? deserve to HIV-positive women still have actually children? For people AIDS Day, The scope speaks through Dr. Adam Spivak, one HIV specialist, about the usual misconceptions around HIV/AIDS.
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Interviewer: Misconceptions and misunderstandings around HIV AIDS up following on The Scope.
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Interviewer: therefore we"re here with Dr. Adam Spivak. The is one assistant professor in the institution of Medicine and also a specialist in HIV. What we"re talking around today is few of the misconceptions. Even in 2016 we"ve learned so much around the virus and what the means, yet some of this misconceptions still space out there. So, let"s walk ahead and also cover several of these. What about transmission? Like, have the right to you acquire HIV native kissing one more person or poignant them or sitting on a toilet seat or several of those old kind of . . .
Dr. Spivak: HIV istransfer mostly sexually, and also it can likewise be transmitted v blood. It cannot betransfer v saliva, with casual contact, share a toilet seat in a windy bathroom, share food through someone that is HIV infected. No one of these are at all placed anybody at risk.
Interviewer: but those stigmas did exist once, right? since they must"ve come native somewhere.
Dr. Spivak: oh absolutely, absolutely, and also of food in the beforehand days when AIDS was very first described in the early on 1980s us didn"t actually also know what resulted in it. That took 2 years. It to be not till 1983 the a novel retrovirus, HIV, was discovered as the reason of AIDS. Therefore you have the right to imagine a condition that was leading to such major illness and deaths and also you don"t know what causes it. Us didn"t also know totally that it was an infection for those first couple of years that a many stigma, a lot of stories circulate, and certainly those are an effective and have actually a way to persist.
Interviewer: one of the various other misconceptions at the very least historically that might still kind of linger on today is you simply see few of these old news clippings or these old photographs and things like that where people are referring to HIV and also AIDS as a happy disease, together a happy cancer or something choose that. We"re starting to discover out the that"s no true.
Dr. Spivak: Yeah, no, no, no. Global HIV istransfer sexually actually v heterosexual sex together the predominant type of HIV transmission. In the early on days again populaces that seemed to it is in hardest hit were happy men, men who have actually sex v men, injection drug users, sex workers, and interestingly enough world of Haitian descent. But again, that has persisted together with the recognition of the early spread of AIDS among gay men as this population to be shunned. The course as soon as we"re talking around the 1980s we"re talking about a group that was very much discriminated versus that felt an extremely marginalized. Regrettably a new disease, a lethal disease, a disease of unknown beginning that seemed to be spreading prefer wildfire had actually the effect of amplifying a lot of those frankly prejudices that were currently present in society.
Interviewer: What about HIV positive women who might be worried around whether or no they can ever before have youngsters or it is in pregnant? What are several of the misconceptions around that?
Dr. Spivak: one of the actual highlights, one of the shining spots through regard to avoidance of HIV infection is mom to boy transmission. What we have actually learned v a number of really well done studies and also now plenty of years of clinical practice is the pregnant women with HIV who space started top top anti-retroviral therapy on the therapy for HIV really execute not happen on HIV to your infants. We know that also a solitary dose the the medicines offered at the time of distribution can reduce transmission from mother to child. It appears as best we recognize it the HIV transmits at the time of delivery. Also just a dose or two doses that the medication at the time is a very powerful preventative. We go a few steps additional than that and get mom totally treated, and in those circumstances transmission from mom to child is nearly unheard that in the unified States and Europe whereby we execute this on a constant basis today, for this reason a real bright spot in terms of HIV prevention.
Interviewer: What about some that the ideas and also maybe stigmas that the disease is a death sentence, the if you capture it her life"s over?
Dr. Spivak: as soon as AIDS was very first described in the 1980s up until the mid-1990s, we did not have reliable treatment and also this frequently was a cause of death in folks the were otherwise young and also healthy and in the prime of your lives. The stigma, the stereotype, the principle that HIV AIDS is a fatality sentence definitely has its root in truth. However, it"s 2016. Starting in the mid-1990s as we"ve discussed, 1995, "96, the advent of what us call combination anti-retroviral therapy, brand-new drugs struggle the market. It"s quiet what we use today. These space fabulous treatments for HIV. Our patients are living long healthy and balanced lives. They need to take the drugs every day.Untreated absolutely it is devastating to the immune system. It leader to what we call opportunistic infections and ultimately come death. We witnessed that very graphically in the first decade and also a fifty percent of this illness. However, what us see this particular day with patients that space able to come in to our clinic, get accessibility to care, take it their medicines on a continuous basis is that they room leading long, healthy, fertile lives and also are doing fabulously well.
Interviewer: What"s one of the optimal things that you would imply for people to have done top top this people AIDS Day?
Dr. Spivak: five absolutely i think the most necessary thing that human being can carry out is gain tested. Ns say that due to the fact that the vast majority of the united States populace has never had actually an HIV test. Currently most civilization may no be proactively at danger for HIV i m sorry is come say they"re no practicing unsafe sex, they might not it is in injecting drugs, yet we carry out know and also there"ve to be a number of studies that have presented that over there are rather a variety of people living today who have HIV who room not diagnosed. That"s a tragedy on a number of fronts. We"ve talked about the capability to acquire these persons treated. It at some point will impact their health. They"re additionally at an excellent risk of spreading the disease.So, i think the check we have for HIV is just one of the finest diagnostic test in contemporary medicine. It"s very accurate. A negative test in the setting of someone who"s no at danger for HIV is an extremely reassuring. It sits on their clinical chart and they never require to gain tested again. We"re make the efforts to get most human being from zero come one to gain tested. Of course the couple of folks who may have gone to risk in the past or still practicing high risk behaviors with regard to HIV, and also we"re able to determine them and diagnose them through HIV, we"re yes, really going to be able to not only assist them but help potentially partners assist them from spreading the disease.
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