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Jupiter, likewise called Jove, Latin Iuppiter, Iovis, orDiespiter, the chief old Roman and also Italian god. Like Zeus, the Greek god through whom he is etymologically similar (root diu, “bright”), Jupiter was a skies god. One of his most ancient epithets is Lucetius (“Light-Bringer”); and also later literature has preserved the very same idea in together phrases together sub Iove, “under the open sky.” as Jupiter Elicius he to be propitiated with a peculiar ritual come send rain in time of drought; as Jupiter Fulgur he had actually an altar in the Campus Martius, and all areas struck by lightning were made his property and also were guarded native the profane by a circular wall.


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Jupiter to be not just the good protecting deity of the race but likewise one whose prayer embodied a distinct moral conception. That is especially involved with oaths, treaties, and also leagues, and it was in the presence of his priest that the most old and sacred type of marriage (confarreatio) take it place. The lesser divine beings Dius Fidius and also Fides were, perhaps, originally identical and also certainly were linked with him. This connection with the conscience, through the sense of obligation and right dealing, was never quite shed throughout roman history. In Virgil’s Aeneid, despite Jupiter is in countless ways as lot Greek as Roman, that is still the great protecting divine being who keeps the hero in the route of duty (pietas) toward gods, state, and family.

But this aspect of Jupiter gained a brand-new force and an interpretation at the near of the early on Roman monarchy through the structure of the well known temple ~ above the Capitol, of which the foundations are still to be seen. It was dedicated to Iuppiter Optimus Maximus (i.e., the best and also greatest of every the Jupiters), and also with the were connected Juno and Minerva, in a fashion that clearly indicates a Greco-Etruscan origin, due to the fact that the mix of three deities in one temple was international to the old Roman religion, while the is discovered in both Greece and also Etruria. The temple’s dedication festival fell on September 13, on which work the consuls originally succeeded come office, accompanied by the Senate and also other magistrates and also priests. In fulfillment of a vow do by your predecessors, the consuls offered to Jupiter a white ox, his favourite sacrifice, and, ~ rendering thanks for the conservation of the state during the past year, they make the exact same vow as that by which their predecessors had actually been bound. Then complied with the feast of Jupiter. In later times this day ended up being the main point that the good Roman games. When a victorious army returned home the triumphal procession passed to this temple.

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Throughout the roman Republic this continued to be the central Roman cult; and, back Augustus’ brand-new foundations (Apollo Palatinus and also Mars Ultor) to be in some feeling its rivals, that emperor was much too shrewd to effort to oust Iuppiter Optimus Maximus from his great position; he came to be the protecting divine being of the reigning emperor together representing the state, as he had actually been the protecting deity of the free republic. His worship spread out over the whole empire.