Most genes contain the details needed to make functional molecules dubbed proteins. (A few genes create regulatory molecule that help the cell assemble proteins.) The trip from gene come protein is complicated and tightly controlled within each cell. It is composed of two major steps: transcription and translation. Together, transcription and translation are recognized as gene expression.

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During the procedure of transcription, the info stored in a gene"s DNA is passed come a similar molecule called RNA (ribonucleic acid) in the cabinet nucleus. Both RNA and also DNA are made up of a chain of building blocks dubbed nucleotides, yet they have slightly various chemical properties. The type of RNA that contains the information for make a protein is dubbed messenger RNA (mRNA) because it tote the information, or message, native the DNA out of the nucleus right into the cytoplasm.

Translation, the second step in gaining from a gene come a protein, takes location in the cytoplasm. The mRNA interacts v a specialized facility called a ribosome, i m sorry "reads" the succession of mRNA nucleotides. Every sequence of 3 nucleotides, referred to as a codon, normally codes because that one certain amino acid. (Amino acids are the building blocks the proteins.) A form of RNA referred to as transfer RNA (tRNA) assembles the protein, one amino mountain at a time. Protein assembly continues until the ribosomes encounters a “stop” codon (a succession of 3 nucleotides the does not code because that an amino acid).

The circulation of info from DNA come RNA come proteins is one of the fundamental principles of molecule biology. The is so essential that it is sometimes dubbed the “central dogma.”

Through the procedures of transcription and translation, info from genes is offered to do proteins.


The hereditary Science Learning facility at the university of Utah supplies an interactive introduction to transcription and translation.

North Dakota State University"s digital Cell animation Collection uses videos that illustrate the procedures of transcription and also translation.

The new Genetics, a publication of the nationwide Institute of general Medical Sciences, consists of discussions that transcription and also translation.


Biointeractive native the Howard Hughes clinical Institute illustrates the step in the circulation of info from DNA to RNA to protein. This tool also gives examples of how modern-day technologies that target the different stages are offered to treat genetic diseases.

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