Shaking and trembling hat results from the motion of the rock beneath the Earth’s surface
StressA force that acts on rock to readjust its shape or volume.

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ShearingStress that pushes a fixed of rock in two opposite directions. Can cause rock to break and also slip personally or to change its shape.
TensionStress pressure that pulls on the crust and also stretches the rock so that becomes thinner in the middle.
CompressionStress pressure that squeezes rock until it wrinkle or breaks.
DeformationAny adjust in the volume or form of the Earth’s crust
FaultBreak in the crust where slabs tardy slip previous each other. Occurs typically along plate borders where the forces of plate motion compress, pull, or shear the tardy so lot that the tardy breaks.
Strike-slip faultThe rocks on either side of the error slip previous each various other sideways with tiny up or under motions.
Normal faultThe fault is in ~ an edge so one rock lies over the error while the various other block lies below the fault.
Hanging wallThe half of the fault that lies over the other block
FootwallThe other half of the fault that lies below.
Reverse faultHas the very same structure that a normal fault, however the blocks relocate in the opposite directions. Compression forces create reverse faults.
Fault –block mountainWhen regular faults uplift a block of rock
FoldsBends in absent that develops when compression shortens and thickens component of the Earth’s crust.
AnticlineFold in rock the bends upward into an arch
SynclineFold in rock that bends downward in the center to kind a bowl.
PlateauA huge area of flat land elevated high over sea level.
FocusA allude beneath Earth’s surface where absent that united state under tension breaks, triggering one earthquake.
EpicenterPoint top top the surface ar directly over the focus
Seismic wavesVibrations that take trip through planet carrying the power release throughout an earthquake.
P wavesEarthquake waves the compress and expand the ground prefer an accordion. Primary waves.
S wavesEarthquake waves the vibrate from side to side and also are the second ones come arrve at a record station
Surface wavesWhen ns waves and s waves space transformed into surface waves. They move much more slowly climate p and also s waves.
SeismographRecords the soil movements cause by seismic waves together they move through the Earth.
MagnitudeMeasurement that earthquake strength based upon seismic wants and also movement along faults.
Mercalli scaleDeveloped to rate earthquakes follow to their intensity
Richter scaleRating that the size of seismic tide as steps by a particular kind of mechanically wave.
Moment magnitude scaleRating mechanism that estimates the full energy exit by an earthquake.
LiquefactionOccurs when an earthquake’s violent shower suddenly transforms loose, soft soil right into liquid mud. Most likely where the floor if complete of moisture.

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AftershockAn earthquake the occurs ~ a big earthquake in the very same area.
TsunamisWater displaced by one earthquake the forms large waves
Base-isolating buildingA structure designed to alleviate the quantity of power that reaches the structure during an earthquake
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